What are the components of the speaker driver?

What are the components of the speaker driver?

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Update time : 2022-07-26 16:06:25
The Driver structure can be roughly divided into four parts: Driver, Diaphragm, Suspension and Support. These four parts are composed of different parts.


1. Driver  
It is mainly composed of the central magnetic pole, the outer magnetic pole and the voice coil. The outer magnetic pole is the yoke iron. According to the different installation methods of magnets, it can be divided into:

External magnet: the voice coil is wrapped around the magnet, so the size of the voice coil should be larger than the magnet. The size of the outer voice coil is increased, and the contact area with the diaphragm is larger, and the dynamic is better. Increased size of the voice coil, but also with higher heat dissipation efficiency.

Inner magnet: the voice coil is built inside the magnet, so the voice coil size is much smaller.

①Center Pole
Center Pole is a permanent magnet, mainly used to conduct magnetism and fix the magnet.
Materials are iron, cobalt, nickel, samarium, aluminum...etc. The early speakers all used ALNICO magnets, which were made of aluminum, nickel and cobalt. The disadvantage is that the power is small, the frequency range is also narrow, it is hard and brittle, and it is inconvenient to process. In addition, because the production of nickel and cobalt is not large, and they are mostly used in other fields, the price is getting higher and higher, which makes the speaker manufacturers switch to Ferrite magnets. The magnetic performance of ferrite is relatively low, and it needs a certain volume to meet the driving force of the speaker, so it is generally used in larger audio speakers. The advantage of ferrite is that it is cheap and cost-effective; the disadvantage is that it is large in size, small in power and narrow in frequency range. The magnetic properties of NdFeB are far superior to those of AlNiCo and ferrite. It is the most used magnet in speakers, especially high-end speakers. Its advantages are its small size, high power and wide frequency range under the same magnetic flux. At present, HiFi headphones basically use such magnets. The disadvantage is that it contains rare earth elements, so the material price is high.

②The outer magnetic poles
The outer magnetic poles include magnetic conductive columns, front and rear magnetic conductive plates. Both the magnetic conductive column and the rear magnetic conductive plate look like an English T, so they are also commonly known as T-Yoke, also called yoke, and some shaped like U, called U-Yoke. Top Plate, Front Plate, also known as washer, is used to conduct magnetism and connect the magnet and the basin frame.

③Voice Coil
Another most important part of the driver is the Voice Coil. Contains the voice coil and the spool (ie the cylindrical Bobbin around which the coil is wound). The voice coil also moves back and forth when the speaker sounds, so the coil should be very light; but if it needs to withstand higher power, it needs to be wound a few more times, so there are various styles in the material and winding method.


2. Diaphragm   
The diaphragm consists of a cone and a dust cover.

The function of the cone is mainly to push the air to make sound. The material of the basin body is: composite paper basin, PP basin, metal basin, silk flax, resin or other fibers and so on. Eighty percent of the woofers are made of paper cones. When the horn sounds, the paper cone will move back and forth (vibration), and its vibration amplitude and speed are related to the frequency of the current. If it is low frequency, the vibration amplitude is large and the speed is slow; if it is high frequency, the diaphragm will swing back and forth rapidly, but the amplitude is relatively small. Under normal circumstances, the human eye cannot tell whether the diaphragm is vibrating when the middle and high-pitched speakers are uttering, but they can be felt by hand touch. The diaphragm is not smooth and is often wrinkled to the touch or coated with glue that can stick to your hands. The diaphragm of some drivers also has a circle of lines, which is usually used to prevent it from twisting when it vibrates, and can also increase the strength of the diaphragm.

The driver has the following characteristics according to the material of the basin:
Paper cone: The cost of paper cone is low, and it can also be mixed with other fibers to make a hybrid diaphragm, which is the most widely used diaphragm material.
Ceramic: good bass effect
Wool: Made from pulp mixed with wool, the bass effect is not good.
Polypropylene: Higher cost.
Metal: mostly used for tweeter dome speakers.
Wood: Warm sound, more suitable for listening to vocals or classical.

②Dust Cap
The dust cover, also known as the Center Cap, is used to prevent dust and debris from entering the magnetic gap, but in large-diameter woofers, it also has the function of weakening the high-frequency response. The material is paper, cloth, aluminum, plastic or carbon fiber fabric, etc. The common shape is hemispherical.


3. Suspension  
Including centering piece (commonly known as elastic wave, Damper) and hanging edge (also known as folding ring, Edge)

The elastic wave is mainly to prevent the voice coil from coming into contact with the outer pole magnet and the yoke when it moves close to the magnetic gap. At the same time, when the voice coil is at rest, it returns to its original position, which provides support for the balance of the vibration system and controls the compliance of the vibration system. The material of the elastic wave is cotton, chemical fiber, silk, CONEX, polyester and so on.

The rounded edge of the diaphragm is not in direct contact with the frame, but is connected to the frame via the hanging edge. There are many styles and materials of the hanging edge, which also have different effects on the frequency response. It is like a spring with good damping characteristics. The hanging edge is mainly used to support the vibration system of the cone and provide compliant restoring force and damping. The materials are paper, plastic foam, cloth, rubber and so on.


4. Support system: Basin Frame  
The basin frame is used to support the entire magnetic pole system and the vibration part. It is required to be hard in texture and cannot produce resonance, and is often made of aluminum alloy or stainless steel die-casting. The common materials of the basin frame are steel, aluminum, zinc, plastic and other materials.

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